أرشيف التصنيف: ܝܘܣܦ ܒܓܬܫ يوسف بقطاش

Book Presentation to His All Holiness the Patriarch

Book Presentation to His All Holiness the Patriarch

We must own our possessions without letting them own us. Those who are able to show this boldness and courage, and those who successfully carry this out in their lives achieve the highest rank possible. Accordingly, the more love and goodwill there is, the more life becomes meaningful and fulfilling.

Constructive/creative thoughts, which derive from sincere efforts, require no agents. If it is to lock in on the target, this thought, ripening in the heart and taking shape in the mind, requires the expressions of language and assumes the form of a book with the beauty of literature.

متابعة قراءة Book Presentation to His All Holiness the Patriarch

The Monastery of My Horizons

The Monastery of My Horizons

Literature is the most important canon that expands the intellectual horizon of humanity, and literary works are the aesthetic products of this canon.

My book titled ‘’Tasroro u Buyoye d-Sabro // The Warrior and the Solace of Hope’’, which I penned in the Sertā variant of Syriac, is also a work that emerged within the framework of this literary canon, aiming to keep the spirit of a tree/tradition with deep roots alive.

Based on the adage, “Every person is both the architect and executioner of their own inner world,” the meaning of “Warrior” as used in the book is a good architect. A person meditates on how to be a good architect. A warrior is a person who, on the stairway of life, learns to orient his love of life toward the benefit of society while balancing foresight with wisdom, caution with courage, power with strength, moderation with enterprise.

متابعة قراءة The Monastery of My Horizons

الظلم والإيذاء

الظلم والإيذاء

كتب المؤلف والكاتب الحكيم الحائزعلى جائزة نوبل Aleksandr Soljenitsin ألكسندرسولجينتسين: “إذا لم نتعلم كبح غباتنا ومطالبنا بشكل صارم، وإخضاع مصالحنا للمعاييرالأخلاقية، فإننا – أي الإنسانية – سوف ينجم عن ذلك أسوأ ما في الإنسان. وتكشّر الطبيعة الإنسانية عن أسنانها”. أود الرد باقتباس من معلمنا المحترم Kemal Sayar  مال سيار. يقول؛ “فقط بالجواهر التي نحملها في أرواحنا هي التي تميزنا عن الآخرين، ليس من خلال الاستيلاء عليها، ولكن من خلال رفض الاستيلاء عليها ، يمكننا تحقيق الإنجاز الروحي الحقيقي”.

دعونا لا ننسى، الصدق هو حرية الروح. على الرغم من أن الجميع يعرف، ما زلت أريد أن أذكركم في سياق تدفق الشعور الصادق.

تكمن الانسانية في الضمير ….

الحب الأخوي في المسيحية….

حق العبد في الإسلام ….

الولاء في الصداقة….

احترام العمل في الزمالة ….

يرفض رفضا قاطعا الظلم والإيذاء …

متابعة قراءة الظلم والإيذاء

الملفونو مار نرساي ومعرفة الذات

الملفونو نرساي ومعرفة الذات

على الرغم من أنه معروف باسم نرساي من نصيبين (مواليد بعد 410، ت 503) إلا أنه كان معلمًا / مؤلفًا / مفكرًا غزير الإنتاج عاش في أورفة ونصيبين في أواخر العصور القديمة. كرس حياته كلها للتدريس. أدار مدرسة نصيبين / السريانية، إحدى المدارس الشهيرة المعروفة في التاريخ ونجم الشرق الساطع، لمدة خمسة وأربعين عامًا، وقام بالتدريس والمحاضرة في هذه المدرسة.

أضاف شهرة إلى مدرسة نصيبين بأعماله الهامة. حصJ (نصيبين) على ألقاب ܐܡܐ ܕܡܕ̈ܝܢܳܬܐ ​​// أم المدن” وܐܡܐ ܕܝܘܼ̈ܠܦܳܢܐ // أم العلوم” وܡܕܝܼܢ̱ܬܐ ܕܡܰܠܦ̈ܢܐ // مدينة الملافنة” و ܡܕܝܼܢ̱ܬܐ ܕܣܘ̈ܟܳܠܐ // مدينة المعاني” في تاريخ الحضارة، بسبب الإنتاج الثقافي قام به في وقته. لهذا السبب يتميز بلقب رابو/ العظيم في الأدب السرياني.

متابعة قراءة الملفونو مار نرساي ومعرفة الذات

Haksızlık ve Mağduriyet

Haksızlık ve Mağduriyet

Nobel Edebiyat Ödülü sahibi bilge Yazar Aleksandr Soljenitsin şöyle yazmaktadır: “Eğer arzularımızla taleplerimizi kesin biçimde sınırlamayı, çıkarlarımızı ahlaki ölçütlere tabi kılmayı öğrenmezsek, insan doğasının en kötü yanları dişlerini gösterirken bizler -yani insanlık- paramparça olup gideceğiz..”

Saygıdeğer hocamız Kemal Sayar’dan bir alıntıyla ben de şöyle cevap vermek isterim. Diyor ki; “Sadece ruhumuzda taşıdığımız mücevherler bizi başka insanlardan farklılaştırdığını, ele geçirerek değil, ancak ele geçirmeyi ret ederek gerçek manevi doyuma ulaşabiliriz.”

Unutmayalım, samimiyet ruhun özgürlüğüdür. Herkes biliyor olsa da, samimi hissiyatın aktarımı bağlamında yine de hatırlatmak istiyorum.

İnsanlıkta Vicdan….

Hıristiyanlıkta Kardeş Sevgisi….

İslamiyet’te Kul Hakkı….

Dostlukta Vefa…

Yoldaşlıkta Emeğe Saygı….

Haksızlığı ve Mağduriyeti kesinlikle ret eder…

Özellikle kutsal olan insan onurunun/emeğinin ve iyi niyetin istismar-suiistimal edilmesi asla kabul edilmez.

Unutulmasın ki, sevgi hak etmeyi, vefa unutmamayı, dostluk sadık kalmayı bilenler içindir. Ve bu değerler, onları büyütenleri büyütür ve onurlandırır.

Bütün bu yaklaşımların hepsinde merhamet ve şefkat hayatın oksijenidir. Bu oksijenin temiz kalması esastır. Çünkü insanlık, kardeş sevgisi, kul hakkı, dostluk ve yoldaşlık sanıldığı gibi ucuz değil. Paha biçilmezdir.

Benim için ‘‘sevgi anlamına gelen bu oksijen bütün dünyayı besleyebilecek değerde bir cevherdir.’’

Bu cevherin yansımalarına/güzelliğine göre davranıldığında haksızlıklar olmaz. Mağduriyetler büyümez. Çünkü mağduriyete/haksızlığa prim vermeyen iyi niyet devamlı işbaşındadır.

Bilinmelidir ki, haksızlığın ve mağduriyetin oluşmaması için merhametli farkındalıkla takınılacak her tutum insanlığa yapılan bir iyilik anlamına gelir.

Çünkü inanç sistemlerimize göre, iyilikte bulunanlar dünyada ve ahirette mutlaka iyilikle karşılık göreceklerdir. Bu dünyada iyi ve güzel davranışlarda bulunanlara da iyilik ve güzellik vardır. Zerre miktarı iyilik veyahut kötülük yapan onun karşılığını bulur buyurulmaktadır. Çünkü hayatta hiçbir şey tesadüf değildir. Yapılan her hareketin, her haksızlığın, her mağduriyetin, her iyiliğin evrende mutlaka bir etkisi ve bir karşılığı vardır.

Birçok kitabın yazarı olan Hanri Benasuz’un deyişiyle, ‘‘Yaşam, kendisini bilen her kişiyi eğitir, bilmeyenleri ise tereddütsüz öğütür.’’

Empatinin yaklaşımlarıyla vicdanın sesini duyan vefakâr tutumlara selam olsun..

Yusuf Beğtaş

Süryani Dili-Kültürü ve Edebiyatı Derneği / MARDİN

تقديم كتاب لقداسة البطريرك

 

تقديم كتاب لقداسة البطريرك

قبل أن يمتلكنا ما نملكه، يجب أن نتملكه ونحصل عليه. أولئك الذين يستطيعون إظهار هذه الشجاعة والجسارة وتنفيذ ذلك بنجاح يعتبرون قد وصلوا إلى أعلى مستوى في الحياة. كلما زاد الحب والنية الحسنة، كلما كانت الحياة أكثر إرضاءً وذات مغزى.

لا يحتاج التفكير البناء / الإبداعي النابع من الجهود المخلصة إلى وسيط. إذا كان هذا الفكر الذي ينضج في القلب ويتشكل في العقل، هو أن يتم التركيزعلى الهدف، فإنه يحتاج إلى تعابير اللغة بأخذ شكل كتاب بجمال الأدب.

كما قيل، “الكاتب غزيرالإنتاج هو الشخص الذي يرى ويخبرما نراه نحن كل يوم بشكل مختلف عن كل ما يراه الجميع .”

وكلما أسرعنا في التعرف على هذه الحقيقة الأساسية، كلما أسرع التفاؤل في بلوغ هدفه في بيئتنا ومجتمعنا.و يساهم في التحول الفكري بهذه السرعة. قال Albert Camus الكاتب الفرنسي الشهير ألبير كامو (1913-1960): “حيثما يوجد الأدب، يوجد دائماً أمل” هي عبارة قيلت على هذا المنوال.

إيلين كادي Eileen Caddy (1917-2006)، أحد كاتبة العصرالجديد الذي فكرت كثيرًا في قضايا الإنسان والمجتمع وبحثت لفتح الأبواب داخيلية أمام الناس، لديها أفكار بناءة وتحويلية من شأنها أن تكون مقاربات للأفراج عن الهموم، ونديمة للأفراح، ومنفساً للقلق. صاحت هذه الكاتبة الشهيرة في إحدى مقالاتها: “لماذا لا تكون متفائلًا لتجد دائمًا الأفضل في الحياة وتخلق دائمًا الأفضل؟ التفاؤل يؤدي إلى القوة. التشاؤم يؤدي إلى الضعف والهزيمة. لتسطع قوة الله من خلالك، فيك، وتخلق من حولك عالمًا رائعًا ومسالمًا ومتناغمًا! عندما تكون نظرتك للحياة متفائلة، فإنك تمنح الأمل والإيمان والثقة في الحياة للأرواح من حولك، وتنشطها وترفعها. سترى دائمًا، الشبيه يجذب الشبيه؛ ستخلق تفاؤلاً حول تفاؤلك وسيكبر مثل جبال الجليد. هناك أمل دائمًا في كل شيء في الحياة؛ حتى لو كان هذا الأمل شرارة صغيرة للبداية… فعندما يلفك هذا الأمل بالحب والأمل في الجو المناسب، تتحول تلك الشرارة الصغيرة إلى لهب وتزداد هذه الشعلة وتنمو، حتى تشتعل بطاقة الله التي لا تنتهي ولا تنضب. بمجرد اشتعال هذا اللهب، لا شيء يمكن أن يمنعه من الانتشار بعد الآن… “.

بصفتي جنديًا للثقافة السريانية، فأنا أوافق على أنها مسؤولية ضميرية أن أعيش، وأن أبقى على قيد الحياة، وأن أقول ما يمكنني أن أفهمه بهذا الشعور وأن أكون فعالًا في إطلاق أفكار جديدة.

يسعدني أن كتابي السرياني المنشور حديثًا بعنوان “طسرورو أو بويويا دصبرو // المحارب وعزاء الأمل” قد قُدم إلى بطريرك أنطاكيا وسائر المشرق والرئيس الروحي للكنيسة السريانية الأرثوذكسية القداسة البطريرك مار إغناطيوس أفرام الثاني الكريم في السويد.

أتقدم بخالص الشكر لأخي العزيز نوري جوشكون حانّو، الذي أدى هذا الواجب نيابة عني في 27 سبتمبر 2021.ِ

مع فائق احترامي

ملفونو يوسف بكداش

رئيس جمعية الثقافة واللغة السريانية وادبها / ماردين

Malfono Mor NARSAY ve Kendini Tanımak

Malfono Mor NARSAY ve Kendini Tanımak

Nusaybinli Narsay olarak biliniyorsa da, (d. 410 sonrası, ö. 503) geç antik çağda Urfa ve Nusaybin’de yaşamış üretken bir üstat/yazar/düşünürdür. Tüm yaşamını ders vermeye adadı. Tarihin tanıdığı meşhur okullardan birisi ve Doğu’nun parlayan yıldızı olan Nsibin/Nusaybin Süryani Okulunu kırk beş yıl boyunca yönetti ve bu okulda ders verdi, hocalık yaptı.

Yaptığı önemli çalışmalarla Nusaybin Okulunun ününe ün kattı. Kendi döneminde yaptığı üretken kültürel çalışmalardan ötürü uygarlık tarihinde Nsibin (Nusaybin) ‘‘ܐܡܐ ܕܡܕ̈ܝܢܳܬܐ // Şehirlerin Anası’’, ‘‘ܐܡܐ ܕܝܘܼܠܦܳܢܐ // Bilimin Anası’’ ve ‘‘ܡܕܝܼܢ̱ܬܐ ܕܡܰܠܦ̈ܢܐ // Üstatların Şehri’’ unvanını kazanmıştır. Bundan dolayıdır ki, Süryani literatüründe rabo/büyük unvanıyla vasıflandırılır.

En önemli çalışması ‘‘Geleneklerin Çürümesi’’ adlı eserdir. Başka eserlerle birlikte üç yüzden fazla dini söyleşi yazdı. Aruz şeklindeki dini söyleşilerini (mimre) 7. ve 12. vezinle yazdı. Kullandığı Süryanicenin edebi güzelliği, akıcılığı ve stili kendisini edebiyatını zirvesine yükseltti. Bu nedenle ‘‘Doğu’nun Temel Direği’’ ve ‘‘Kutsal Ruh’un’’ sitarı gibi unvanlara mazhar oldu. Yazdığı kitap ve dini söyleşilerine Kutsal yazılara ilişkin yorumlar/tefsirler koydu. Ne yazık ki, yazdığı eserlerin birçoğu yok oldu.

Edebi açıdan dönemin dünyasını etkileyen bu meşhur Süryani düşünür/yazar Malfono Narsay Rabo’nun (MS 410-503) harmanın dibinden elde edilmiş saf tanelerin içinden alınmış bir söyleşisinde şöyle yazar: ’’Vücut ile birlikte ruhu katleden öldürücü kılıç olan kıskançlık, düşüncelerimizin methiyeler dizdiği bir ordu komutanı gibi içimizde yer etmiş. Kendi dostlarını katleden ve sahip olduğu zenginliği batıran gururu bir elbise gibi taşıyor ve beynimizi onunla süslüyoruz. Dilimiz yaradılış sırasında Suçlayıcı’nın uydurduğu yalanın elçisidir, onun emellerine hizmet etmektedir.’’

İnsan ve toplum konularında çok kafa yoran, insanın içindeki kapıları açmaya gayret gösteren ünlü yazar Eileen Caddy (1917-2006) bir yazısında -bu bağlamda- şöyle yazar: ‘‘Dolap ağzına kadar dolup taştığında kapılar açılır ve içindekiler dışarı gürültüyle dökülür; hiçbir şey buna engel olamaz. Bent kapakları açıldığında, su muazzam bir güçle önüne ne gelirse kendine katarak ileri doğru akar. Aynı şekilde içinde taşıdığın ruhsal gücün bir kez farkına varıp, onu ortaya çıkarttığında, artık hiçbir güç onun akmasını engelleyemez. O, akarken bütün olumsuzluk ve uyumsuzluğu bir kenara iter, yerine barış, sevgi, uyum ve anlayışı koyar. Sevgidir tüm dünyada galip gelecek olan; sevgidir tüm insanlığı birleştirecek olan. O yüzden, kendi içinden gelen muazzam sevgiyi ne kadar çabuk serbest bırakırsan ve akmasına izin verirsen, dünya barışı, uyum ve tüm insanlığın birliğine o kadar çabuk tanık olursun. Yüreğinde sevgiyi taşıdığında diğer insanların en iyi yanlarını ortaya çıkartırsın, çünkü sevgi ancak en iyiyi görür ve böylece en iyiyi ortaya koyar. Korkma; yüreğini aç, içinde hiçbir şeyi saklama ve her şeyin özgürce akmasına izin ver.’’

Bu anlatımlardan anlaşılacağı üzere, hayatın meydan okumalarında esas mesele insanın kendini tanımasıdır. Kendini keşfetmesidir. Kendi içindeki muazzam sevgiyi serbest bırakmasıdır. Serbest akmasına izin vermesidir. Bunu yapmadan, kendimizi tanımadan, farkında olmadığımız ilahi özelliklerimizi kendimizde keşfetmeden, hedefe ve menzile ulaşmak zordur. Çünkü insan kendi özündeki ilahi tasarımlarla/niteliklerle var olur. Hayat, sevgi ve bilgiyi öğrenme; çubuğun asmaya bağlı olma, bağlı kalma sürecidir. Parça/çubuk/birey, bütünün/asmanın özelliklerini taşıdığı oranda sağlıklı meyveler verebilir. Dolayısıyla kalıcı düşünce/tatmin/doyum/huzur insanın ilahi/vicdani değerlere bağlı kalmasıyla doğru orantılıdır. Bunları pozitif manada kullanabildiği ve iyi değerlendirebildiği ölçüde insan gelişir, kendindeki yeni cevherleri/nitelikleri açığa çıkarır. Kuşkusuz ki, bu da,  insanın kendini keşfetmesiyle/tanımasıyla, bilgiyle aydınlanmasıyla doğru orantılıdır. Nusaybinli Aziz Mor Afrem (306-373)’in yorumlarında bu gerçek şöyle dile gelir: ‘‘Bilgi Rab olduğundan peşinden koşmalısın ki, sana Rabbi bildirsin. Seni yüceltecek ve meclislerin başına oturtacak olan bilgidir….’’

‘‘Kendini yargılayan, başkasını yargılamaya vakit bulamaz’’ diyen Ninovalı Mor İshak (613-700)’un anlamlı deyişinde vurgulandığı üzere, bunun olabilmesi, insanın kendinden başlamasına, kendini tanımasına, kendini bilmesine, ruhunu ilahi hakikatlerle aydınlatmasına bağlıdır. Ancak iç dünyayı karartan bencilliği dönüştürmek, ruhu katleden kıskançlığı yenmek, sahte benliğin kabuklarını atmak, onlardan kurtulmayı istemek kolay değil. Zor, dikenli, sancılı bir süreç olsa da, insan kendi kitabını okumadan/okuyamadan özüne, asıl olana, ruhuna dönüş yapamaz. Özünde saklı olan hazineleri ve madenleri bulup çıkaramaz. Fakat her isteyen bunu başarabilir. Çünkü yardım isteyene verilir; ne tip yardım istenirse o tip yardım gelecektir. Yani her şeyde olduğu gibi özgür irade burada da devreye  giriyor.

Bu doğrultuda Aziz Mor Afrem tarihin derinliklerinden (303-373), “Rabbim, seni bilmenin bağışladığı aydınlıkla zihnimizin karanlığını dağıt. Dağıt ki, aydınlanan ruhumuz saflıkla yenilenmiş olarak sana hizmet etsin” diye haykırmaktadır.

Aziz Agustinus (354-450) ise, ‘‘Kendinizden uzaktayken Tanrı’ya nasıl yaklaşabilirsiniz?’’ demiş ve şöyle dua etmiştir: ‘‘Ya Rab, seni tanıyabilmem için kendimi tanımamı sağla’’

Dolayısıyla bu deneyimlenmiş tecrübelerden anlaşılıyor ki, gerçek başarı suçlu aramadan insanın kalbini iyi okuyabilmesine, kendi özüne ve kendine dönebilmesine, içerden dışarıya bakabilmesine bağlıdır. Bu tutumla özünü keşfeden insan ilahi doğrularla yani sevgiyle bütünleşmiş bir yaşam sürer. Bu kişiye özel tecrübe, kelimelerle anlatılamayacak kadar kutsaldır. Ve kutsal olan da hemen her zaman gizlidir.

Unutulmasın ki, öz değerimizin farkında olup kendimizi başkalarıyla kıyaslamadan olduğumuz gibi seversek, eksik yönlerimizi gidermek ve kendimizi geliştirmek çok daha kolay olacaktır. Çünkü bir kazan hamurun ekmeğe dönüşmesi için çok az maya yeterlidir.

Yusuf Beğtaş

Süryani Dili-Kültürü ve Edebiyatı Derneği / MARDİN

دير آفاقي

دير آفاقي
الأدب هو أهم قانون يثري أفق تفكير البشر، والأعمال الأدبية هي أكثر المنتجات جمالية لهذا القانون.
الكتاب الذي يحمل عنوان “المحارب وعزاء الأمل // تسرورو وبوييا دصبرو”، والذي كتبته بالخط السرياني سيرتو، هو عمل ظهر في إطار هذا القانون الأدبي، وهو عمل يهدف إلى الحفاظ على روح الشجرة / التقاليد ذات الجذور العميقة التي على قيد الحياة.
كما قيل “الانسان هو مهندس وجلاد عالمه الداخلي.”
” المحارب” في معنى هذا الكتاب، هو مهندس معماري جيد. إنه الشخص الذي يصمم طريقة وإجراءات كونه مهندسًا معماريًا جيدًا. يعني المحارب أنه يجب أن يعلم (و) يتعلم أثناء صعوده سلالم الحياة، ويوازن عقله بالحصافة، والشجاعة بحذر، والقوة بالقدرة، والحزم باعتدال، وتوجيه حبه للحياة لصالح المجتمع.
كنت متحمساً لتقديم كتابي المنشور حديثًا إلى دير مار جبرائيل، دير آفاقي، يوم الثلاثاء 21 سبتمبر 2021، لمطران طورعبدين نيفاة حبر الجليل مار تيموثاوس صموايل أقتاش. لأنه من كل كتاب أدبي وكل فكر أبدي، يخترق شعاع من القوة إلى الإنسان. الكتابات الأدبية تبدأ من الناس وتعود إلى الناس. تفتح روح الإنسان وتوسع آفاقه. إنه تدفع حدود الفكر. إنها ملفات تتفاعل مع الإنسان وتجدده وتنشطه روحياً وفكرياً وتضعه في عملية التحول. إن الانضباط الأفضل لبذورالأخوة الشاملة والوحدة الروحية في القلوب هو نظام الأدب / الأدب والكتب التي ظهرت في هذا المجال.
في هذا الموضوع؛ كتب القديس مار افرام (306-370) من نصيبين المشهور بلقبه “شمس السريان”: “الكتب كالمرايا، العين النقية ترى شكل الحقيقة هناك، نور يناسب العينين والحقيقة تليق بالإنسان. عليك أن تختار نورًا لعينيك وكتابًا لأفكارك، وإذا لم تستغل الكتب فاعلم أنك ستهزم من قبل الشياطين وستُذكر مع المتقاعسين ”
هذه الحقيقة الأساسية التي عبَّر عنها القديس مار أفرام يتم التعبيرعنها في قصائد مار إيسحق نينوىي (613-700): “معرفة الحقيقة تملأ القلب بالسلام. يقوي الشخص بفرح. نصيحته رائعة وممتعة. يضيء العيون”.
كما قال هذان القديسان التاريخيان، فإن الأدباء والكتاب السريان قد خلقوا تقليدًا أدبيًا فريدًا من خلال إنتاجيتهم الفكرية وأنشطتهم الأدبية في العملية التاريخية. لقد طورهذا التقليد الأفكار، وعزز الأفعال، وفتح باب التعاون والتضامن، وقدم مساهمات كبيرة في عالم الأخلاق والحكمة. هذه المساهمات الفكرية التي يقدمونها، والتي ضمنت الانسجام / النظام / الاستقراربين عالم الروح والجسد، تهمس سرالحقيقة والخير والأخلاق والجمال في آذاننا نحن المسافرين على طريق الحياة. لأنهم يعرفون جيدًا أن الحضارة لا يمكن أن تتطور بدون كتب / أدب. فكما آمنوا بما عرفوه، كرّسوا أنفسهم لهذا الاعتقاد. نظرًا لأنهم رأوا أنه لا يمكن التقدم بدون كتاب قبل ذلك بكثير ، فقد استوفوا متطلبات هذا من خلال إنتاجيتهم  الأدبية.
لطالما كان الأدب هو القوة الأكثر فاعلية في تحول الفرد والمجتمع. في هذا السياق، تتمتع الأعمال الأدبية بميزات لا تفقد عملتها. لا بد من قول الكاتب الفرنسي الشهيرAlbert Camus ألبير كامو (1913-1960) “حيث يوجد الأدب هناك أمل دائمًا” في هذا السياق.
مع هذا الفهم للأمل الذي عبرعنه كامو، أستطيع أن أقول إن المناهج الفكرية التي أشرت إليها في كتابي هي أدلة ومنارة  لأنشطتي في المجال المدني، والتي تستمر بمسؤولية قادمة من الماضي. أثناء أداء خدمتي / مهمتي المتعددة الأبعاد التي قمت بها في الماضي في دير مار جبرائيل -المناهج الفكرية في هذا الكتاب- كان دائمًا مصدرتحفيزي الوحيد هو هذا الأمل، كما قال كامو.
مثل الأديرة الأخرى في جغرافيتنا، فإن ديرمارجبرائيل، الذي كان مركزًا للمعرفة والحكمة للسريان وكل البشرية من أعماق التاريخ حتى الوقت الحاضر، همس لي مثل أي شخص آخر بأسرار الحكمة الأبدية. لقد علمني الفهم / العمق الروحي المدفون في هذا الدير ألا أؤذي الإنسان والكون، هيكل الله الحي. ذكر أن نعتز به ونعطيه قيمة. بالهتاف “مبدأ الاجتهاد والمسئولية والضرر” الذي هو جوهر طبيعتنا البشري.!
في مسار الحياة ، نقع أحيانًا في أوهام الأنا وننتهك حريتنا، بوعي أو بغير وعي، يمكن أن نضع أنفسنا في معضلات صعبة. الروح الإيجابية في أعماق الأديرة، التي تطور طريقة وطريقة التخلص من هذه المعضلات الصعبة، تعني الانضباط الذي يحافظ على الإيثار والوعي الجماعي. وسبب وجود الأديرة هو إبقاء هذه الروح حية باكتساب المعاني والأغراض الفاضلة والسعي لإبقائها حية. لأنه في الثقافة الرهبانية، لا يوجد تحضير. هناك شعور كبير بالمسؤولية والاجتهاد والإنتاجية يتشكل من خلال الانضباط الداخلي. كان هناك دائمًا هذا الفهم في الخلفية الفكرية للأشخاص / القديسين الذين أسسوا نظام الحياة في الأديرة والأديرة: “مع عمليات التعليم/العبادة القائمة على الانضباط التي تعزز روح ضبط النفس، تتطلب أوقات الانضباط الصعبة الخدمة الداخلية تخلق أشخاصًا أقوياء. الأشخاص الأقوياء أيضًا يخلقون أوقاتًا سهلة. الأوقات السهلة تلد ضعفاء، والضعفاء يجلبون أيامًا صعبة..!!”
لذلك، فإن منطق “الشومليو- التكامل” هو صيغة للحياة ، خاصة في الأفكار والأفعال ضد جفاف الروح. خاصة للوعي المستيقظ بوعي روحي. لهذا السبب، كانت الفكرة الرئيسية للعملية في الأديرة دائمًا هي منطق “الشوملويو”. هذا المنطق هو الذي يرفعها من معارضة التكامل، وقد تم اختباره مرارًا وتكرارًا أن الطريق إلى النجاح هو تمجيد هذا المنطق.
وفقًا لهذا المنطق، فإن المعرفة هي نور إلهي ينير عقل / روح الإنسان. المعرفة التي شكلها الحب تصبح مثمرة، تنبت وتؤتي ثمارها، وإن كان من جذورها الجافة. أصعب معرفة هي معرفة الذات واكتشاف الذات.
إذا تم استيعاب المعرفة التي سيتم تعلمها من الكتب، فإنها تتحول إلى نظام داخلي. كلما زاد حب الإنسان ومعرفته، كان أكثر تواضعًا. كلما كان الإنسان أكثر تواضعًا، تحرر من مرض الغطرسة والتكبر، وقبول الآخرين كما هم. إنه يعظم كرامة الإنسان. لذلك، القراءة والتعلم (التعلم المستمر) هو في الواقع تعليم أنفسنا. يتعلق الأمربالارتقاء بأنفسنا إلى المستوى التالي.
مما لا شك فيه كما نوه,مولانا الرومي. في هذا الصدد  يقول: “إذا لم تستطع شم الروائح في حديقة الورود؛ ابحث عن العيب ليس في الحديقة، ولكن في نفسك وفي أنفك. يوجد في قاع البحر لؤلؤة وحجر. الأشياء التي يجب الإشادة بها هي دائمًا من بين العيوب”.
نعم، يجب أن نقرأ لنتعمق أو نرتقي. يجب أن نقرأ لتوسيع فهمنا وتفكيرنا. يجب أن نقرأ لنفهم أنفسنا والحياة. يجب أن نقرأ لتحويل تصوراتنا البالية. يجب أن نقرأ لنكتسب المعرفة. يجب أن نقرأ من أجل حياة صحية / مرضية. يجب أن نقرأ للتعرف على عوالم / أفكار / مناهج أخرى. يجب أن نقرأ لنكون مجتهدين / منتجين. علينا أن نقرأ من أجل النقد البناء. يجب أن نقرأ حتى لا يتم تهميشنا / استبعادنا. يجب أن نقرأ حتى لا نحتقر. يجب أن نقرأ حتى لا نغضب. يجب أن نقرأ حتى لا نفرض. يجب أن نقرأ لنتعلم احترام الإنسان وكل شيء في الكون. يجب أن نقرأ لنرى كل شيء من مسافة متساوية. يجب أن نقرأ حتى نترك إرثًا أفضل مما تم تسليمه إلينا. يجب أن نقرأ لفتح أعين قلوبنا. يجب أن نقرأ لنرى وجه وقلب الناس. يجب أن نقرأ لتوسيع إرادتنا وانضباطنا. ولأسباب أخرى كثيرة، يجب أن نعزز ثقافة القراءة.
كما قيل، “ربما لا نصل إلى الشاطئ، لكن يجب أن نقرأ لنتعمق، يجب أن نقرأ باستمرار”.!
ملفونو يوسف بكتاش
رئيس جمعية الثقافة واللغة السريانية وادبها / ماردين

Visiting From Abroad

Visiting From Abroad

When viewed through a sociological approach, there are many benefits to visiting one’s homeland from abroad.

First of all, visits to one’s home country are essentially cultural activities. They are among the activities that nurture people’s humanity and purify their spirits. They are one of the important factors of reinforcing friendship and affinity, as well as interaction, development, transformation, and economic growth.

Just as seeds require fertile soil in order to grow, cultural development really needs warm, soft hearts and cultural transactions. Because when the spirit’s (or heart’s) purity is neglected, the heart becomes cold and callous. Founding development on top of a callous heart is akin to planting a seed in a rock.

Yezidi chief Pir Amer, who lives in Germany, is one of the outstanding opinion leaders of our geography. He is one of the leading representatives of our Yezidi brothers and sisters.

On 7 September 2021, a Tuesday, we ran into each other by chance in Midyat. We had a chat. It was a pleasant time, reminiscing about old memories. We cheered each other up. We briefed each other. We talked about the importance of the maxim of “bridges not walls” for a promising future and about the need for coming closer in order to be understood in social endeavors. With the experience of our present companionship, we talked about the abiding fruits of acting with sincere awareness.

Though much time had passed, it was spiritually exhilarating to feel the friendship/intimacy between Yezidi chief Pir Amer and my late father Abuna Tuma Beğtaş. In the spiritual outlook, there is no “you and I.” There is “we.” As he shared the memories/wisdom of my late father, I saw that he was happy and smiling. I was both happy and thoughtful after closely feeling such a meaningful, sincere friendship.

Yes, it is true. Life would be unbearable without friendship. I felt greatly honored by the privilege of bonding with an old friend of my late father’s and conversing with his appreciative personality. To him and the community he represents, I pay my respects and wish them health and success.

I would like to take this opportunity to remind of the following verses by Mevlana.

He says;

”Leave blindness to the eyes,

Deafness to the ears,

Leave exhaustion to the knees,

Silence to the lips.

But the heart must not grow deaf,

Or blind, or exhausted,

So that it may see you,

Hear you,

Run to you, bursting.

If the heart does not experience it,

What use is sight to the eye?

If the soul does not feel it,

What use is sound to the ear?

If the heart does not love,

What use is touch to the hand?”

Yusuf Beğtaş

Syriac Language-Culture and Literature Association / Mardin

The Glory of the Spirit and Nobleness of Intelligence

The Glory of the Spirit and Nobleness of Intelligence

No entity in nature, whether organic or inorganic, exists solely for its own self. Due to the natural system, everything is interdependent. Just as the sun does not rise for itself, neither does a tree bear fruit for itself. The same goes for us humans. By virtue of mutual need, we must complete and better one another with love and without expecting something in return. We are obligated to give back to the source from which we receive.

According to this perspective, life has its own unique rules and spiritual laws. The principle of “mutualism and usefulness” or “win-win” principle is the foremost of these laws. On the journey from opposition to completeness, the principle of “mutualism and usefulness” must always be involved. Even so, what really lies at the invisible spiritual center of life is “unconditional love.” It is oftentimes active and at work in life’s invisible areas.

However, if the principle of “mutualism and usefulness,” which stimulates active altruism in people were to be adequately observed in all places, under all circumstances and in all relationships, then life would be more fulfilling and meaningful. Life would be more beautiful and richer.

Because the more a human overcomes selfishness and egotistic cravings/passions, the more human he becomes. He becomes more moral and grows and develops spiritually.

The main source of the principle of “mutualism and usefulness” is the following quote by Christ: “Do to others what you would have them do to you” (Matthew 7:12, Luke 6:31). Here, the main thing is sincerity, which means the freedom of the spirit. It is goodwill, which is closed off to exploitation and abuse.

Because it is impossible for a conceited, vindictive, selfish, duplicitous, calculating, two-faced person to have good intentions in an internal sense. If the intention is not sincere, it becomes ineffective. The intention of the two-faced is destined to backfire with an adverse effect.

A person can be two-faced toward another person; even worse, we can be two-faced toward ourselves. It is easy to be honest with other people; it takes skill to be honest with ourselves. Though we might fool people through cunning and intelligence, we cannot fool God, who reciprocates our intentions. The Most High Creator knows the truths that we manage to hide even from ourselves. When we desire something in the depths of our hearts, he does not look at what we tell him, but at what we secretly tell ourselves.

In other words, every kind of exploitation and abuse of human dignity or cheating someone of their rights (or extorting them) passes for cruelty in divine records. It becomes difficult to digest because it means cheating people out of their rightful due. It returns as sorrow and trouble.

In situations where selfish attitudes are highly prized in order to avoid facing these harsh truths, conscience should, as the harbinger of altruism, act as a check against cunning/devious thoughts and a restraint against selfish/egotistic attitudes. It should serve this function. This is how it should be.

For this to be possible, the activity of obscene attitudes must be disrupted/weakened. In fact, it should be destroyed if possible. Though character traits like “Politeness, Kindness and Purity” evoke a bitter feeling in people, these virtues actually contain the surest/trustiest formula for paving the way for common life and civilization, and for disrupting/weakening the activity of obscene attitudes as well. Substituting their meaning for oppression will restore human dignity to its genuine value.

There is an idea that, “These virtues are the junction signboard in a garden that forks out between our moral law and human survival.

The French say, “Politeness is the nobleness of intelligence.”

In the same vein, philosopher/writer Henri-Louis Bergson (1859-1941), who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1927 “for his rich and exhilarating ideas and the brilliant talent he used in the presentation of these ideas,” says, “Courtesy is the glory of the spirit.”

With his verdict that, “Since morality means having the best interest of others at heart or at least not hurting them, a rude and impertinent person turns out to be ceaselessly injuring his own capacity to be moral,” Bergson emphasizes that, in a sense, these virtues are a kind of morality.

Because the presence of these virtues which form the basis of moral purity and introduce moral consistency signifies progress/improvement: They facilitate life. They allow one to breathe. They let the soul flourish. Their absence spells regression/negative placidity: Life gets more difficult. Oxygen is poisoned. Relationships are ruined. Human dignity is injured. Sincerity is mutilated. Honesty is made to suffer.

As it has been said: “Every person is both the architect and executioner of their own inner world.”

In order not to be our own executioners, we have to value these virtues which reduce the fragility of life and heal spiritual illnesses. We have to increase our activity in life.

Because even the deaf can hear the language they speak. Even the vulgar can see its beauties. And the blind feel them.

I enclose herein for the consideration of my esteemed readers the link to my article titled, “Politeness, Kindness and Purity,” where I take a sociological approach in scrutinizing the Syriac meaning of these virtues as well as their benefits and effects in life. Those curious can peruse the meanings of these virtues more extensively.

https://www.karyohliso.com/articles/article/5826

https://syriacpress.com/blog/2021/04/11/politeness-kindness-purity/

Yusuf Beğtaş

Syriac Language-Culture and Literature Association / Mardin

Ufuklarımın Manastırı

Ufuklarımın Manastırı

Edebiyat insanoğlunun düşünce ufkunu zenginleştiren en önemli kanon, edebî eserler de bu kanonun en estetik ürünleridir.

‘’Tasroro u Buyoye d-Sabro // Savaşçı ve Umudun Tesellisi’’ başlığını taşıyan, Süryanicenin Serto hattıyla kaleme aldığım kitap da işte bu edebî kanon çerçevesinde ortaya çıkmış bir eser olup, kökü derinlerde bir ağacın/geleneğin ruhunu yaşatmanın gayretini hedeflemiş bir çalışmadır.

‘‘İnsan kendi iç dünyasının hem mimarı hem de celladıdır’’ özdeyişinden yola çıkan kitaptaki anlamıyla ‘‘Savaçı’’, iyi bir mimardır. İyi mimar olmanın yol ve yordamını tasarlayan kişidir. Savaşçı, yaşam merdivenlerini çıkarken öğren(il)mesi gereken, basiretle aklını, temkinle cesaretini, kudretle kuvvetini, itidalle atılganlığını dengeleyerek, yaşam aşkını toplumun yararına yöneltmesi demektir.

Yeni yayınlanmış bu kitabımı, 21 Eylül 2021 Salı günü, Turabdin Metropoliti Mor Timotheos Samuel Aktaş’ın değerli şahsında, ufuklarımın manastırı olan Mor Gabriel Manastırı’na takdim etmekten heyecan duydum. Çünkü her edebî kitaptan ve her ebedî düşünceden, insanın içine bir güç huzmesi sızar. Edebî yazılar insandan yola çıkar, insana döner. İnsanın ruhunu açar ve ufkunu genişletir. Düşünce sınırlarını zorlar. İnsandaki tepkiselliği törpüler, ruhsal ve düşünsel yönden insanı yeniler, tazeler ve dönüşüm sürecine sokar. Evrensel kardeşliğin ve ruhani birlikteliğin tohumlarını yüreklere en iyi serpen disiplin, edebiyat/literatür disiplini ve bu disiplin içerisinde ortaya çıkmış kitaplardır.

Bu konuda; “Süryanilerin Güneşi” lakabıyla ünlü Nusaybinli Aziz Mor Afrem (306-370) şöyle yazmıştır: “Kitaplar ayna gibidir. Gözü saf olan orada hakikatin şeklini görür. Gözlere ışık, düşünceye ise hakikat yaraşır. Gözüne ışık, düşüncene kitap seçmelisin. Eğer her gün okuyup kitaplardan faydalanmazsan, bil ki şeytanlara yenilir, aylaklarla birlikte anılırsın.’’

Aziz Mor Afrem’in dile getirdiği bu temel doğru, Ninovalı Mor İshok (613-700)’un dizelerinde şöyle dile gelmiştir: ‘‘Hakikat bilgisi, kalbi esenlikle doldurur. İnsanı sevinçle pekiştirir. Öğütleri büyüktür, ilginçtir. Gözleri aydınlatır.’’

Bu iki tarihi aziz şahsiyetin de buyurduğu gibi, tarihsel süreç içerisinde, Süryani edîb ve yazarlar, düşünsel üretkenlikleri ve yazınsal faaliyetleriyle kendine özgü bir edebiyat geleneği var etmişlerdir. Bu gelenek düşünceleri geliştirmiş, eylemleri güçlendirmiş, yardımlaşma ve dayanışmaya kapı aralamış, ahlak ve bilgelik dünyasına ise büyük katkılar sunmuştur. Onların, ruh-mana ve beden-madde dünyası arasında uyum/düzen/istikrarı sağlamış bu düşünsel katkıları, yaşam yolunda yürüyen biz yolcuların kulağına doğruluğun, iyiliğin, ahlakın, güzelliğin sırrını fısıldamaktadır. Çünkü kitap/edebiyat olmadan bir medeniyetin gelişmeyeceğini en iyi onlar biliyorlardı. Bildiklerine de inandıkları gibi, kendilerini de o inanmışlığa adamışlardı. Çok daha önceleri kitap olmadan terakki edilemeyeceğini gördüklerinden, yazınsal (edebî) üretkenlikleriyle bunun gereklerini yerine getirmişlerdi.

Öteden beri edebiyat, birey ve toplumun dönüşmesinde en etkili güç işlevi görmektedir. Bu bağlamda edebiyat eserleri güncelliğini yitirmeyen özelliklere sahiptir. Ünlü Fransız yazar Albert Camus’un (1913-1960) ‘’Edebiyatın olduğu yerde devamlı umut vardır’’ sözü bu minvalde söylenmiş bir söz olsa gerek.

Camus’un belirttiği bu umut anlayışıyla kitabımda değindiğim düşünsel yaklaşımlar, dünden gelen bir sorumlulukla devam eden, sivil alandaki faaliyetlerimin yönlendiricisi ve aydınlatıcısıdır diyebilirim. Geçmişte Mor Gabriel Manastırında yürüttüğüm çok boyutlu hizmetimin/görevimin ifası sırasında -bu kitaptaki düşünsel yaklaşımlar- yegâne motivasyon kaynağım, hep Camus’un dediği bu umut olmuştur.

Coğrafyamızdaki diğer manastırlar gibi, tarihin derinliklerinden günümüze kadar Süryanice, Süryaniler ve tüm insanlık için bir ilim ve irfan merkezi olan Mor Gabriel Manastırı, herkes gibi bana da ebedi bilgeliğin sırlarını fısıldamış ve fısıldamaktadır. Bu manastırda gömülü olan ruhsal anlayış/derinlik bana, Allah’ın yaşayan tapınağı olan insana ve kâinata zarar vermemeyi öğretmiştir. Sevgi beslemeyi, değer vermeyi hatırlatmıştır. İnsani doğamızın özü olan “çalışkanlık, sorumluluk ve zararsızlık ilkesini” haykırarak hem de!

Yaşamın akışı içinde bazen egonun yanılsamalarına kapılıp, özgürlüğümüzü kötüye kullanarak bilinçli-bilinçsiz kendimizi zor çıkmazlara sokabiliyoruz. Bu zor çıkmazlardan kurtulmanın yol ve yöntemini geliştiren manastırların derinliğindeki o pozitif ruh, diğerkâm ve kolektif şuuru yaşatan disiplin anlamına gelir. Manastırların varlık nedenleri, erdemli anlam ve amaçlar edinerek bu ruhu yaşatmak ve yaşatmanın gayreti içerisinde olmaktır. Çünkü manastır kültüründe hazıra konmak yok. İçsel disiplin ile biçimlenen yüksek bir sorumluluk anlayışı, çalışkanlık ve üretkenlik vardır. Manastırları ve manastırlardaki yaşamın disiplinini temellendirmiş kişilerin/azizlerin düşünsel arka planında şöyle bir anlayış hep vardı: ′′Özdenetim ruhunu güçlendiren disiplinden kaynaklı eğitim/ibadet süreçleri ile iç hizmetin gerektirdiği zorlu disiplin vakitleri, güçlü insanlar var eder. Güçlü insanlar da kolay zamanlar yaratır. Kolay zamanlar ise zayıf insanlar doğurur, zayıf insanlar zor günleri getirir…′′

Dolaysıyla, ruhun kuraklığına karşı bilhassa düşünce ve eylemlerde ‘‘Şumloyo/Tekamül’’ mantığı bir yaşam formülüdür. Özellikle de ruhsal farkındalık sahibi olan uyanmış bilinçler için. Bu sebepledir ki, öteden beri manastırlardaki işleyişin ana fikri “Şumloyo” mantığıdır. Bu mantık, karşıtlıktan tamamlayıcılığa yükselten bir mantıktır ve başarının yolunun, bu mantığı yüceltmekten geçtiği de defaatle yaşanarak denenmiştir.

Bu mantığa göre bilgi, insanın zihnini/ruhunu aydınlatan ilahi bir ışıktır. Sevgi ile biçimlenen bilgi, üretken olur, kuru bir ağaç kökünden de olsa filizlenir ve meyve verir. En zor bilgi ise, insanın kendini tanıması, kendini keşfetmesidir.

Kitaplardan öğrenilecek bilgi içselleştirilirse, içsel disipline dönüşür. İnsan ne kadar sevgi ve bilgi doluysa, o kadar tevazu sahibi olur. İnsan ne denli tevazu sahibiyse, o denli kendini kibir ve ululanma hastalığından kurtarmış olur ve başkalarını da olduğu gibi kabul eder. İnsan onurunu yüceltir. Dolayısıyla okumak ve öğrenmek (devamlı öğrenmek) aslında kendimizi eğitmektir. Kendimizi bir üst aşamaya taşımaktır.

İnsanoğlunun taşınacağı üst aşamaları, kat edeceklerini, nitelik ve niceliğini en güzel anlatanlardan biri de kuşkusuz Hz. Mevlâna Rumî’dir. Bu hususta der ki: “Gül bahçesindeki kokuları alamıyorsan; kusuru bahçede değil kendi içinde ve burnunda ara. Denizin dibinde inci de vardır taş da. Övülecek şeyler de daima kusurlar arasındadır.”

Evet, derinleşmek veya yükselmek için okumalıyız. İdrakimizi ve düşüncemizi büyütmek için okumalıyız. Kendimizi ve hayatı anlamak için okumalıyız. Yerleşik algılarımızı dönüştürmek için okumalıyız. Bilgi edinmek için okumalıyız. Sağlıklı/doyumlu bir yaşam için okumalıyız. Başka dünyaları/düşünceleri/yaklaşımları tanımak için okumalıyız. Çalışkan/üretken olmak için okumalıyız. Yapıcı eleştiri yapmak için okumalıyız. Ötekileştirmemek/dışlamamak için okumalıyız. Hor görmemek için okumalıyız. İnatlaşmamak için okumalıyız. Dayatma yapmamak için okumalıyız. İnsana ve kâinattaki her şeye saygıyı öğrenmek için okumalıyız. Her şeye eşit mesafeden bakabilmek için okumalıyız. Bize aktarılanın daha iyisini miras bırakabilmek için okumalıyız. Kalp gözümüzün açılması için okumalıyız. İnsanların hem yüzünü, hem kalbini görmek için okumalıyız. İrademizi ve disiplinimizi genişletmek için okumalıyız.…. Ve başka başka nice nedenlerden ötürü okuma kültürünü yüceltmeliyiz.

Denildiği üzere, ‘‘Kıyıya varamayabiliriz belki ama derinlere inmek için okumalı, devamlı okumalıyız!’’

 

Yusuf Beğtaş

Süryani Dili-Kültürü ve Edebiyatı Derneği / MARDİN

الزوّار الغرباء

الزوّار الغرباء

عند النظر إليها من منظوراجتماعي، فإن فوائد زيارة الوطن من الخارج كثيرة. بادئ ذي بدء، تعتبرزيارة المرء إلى أرضه من الأنشطة ثقافية. إنه من بين الأنشطة التي تغذي إنسانية الإنسان وتطهر روحه. إنه أحد العوامل المهمة لتعزيز الصداقة والتقارب والتفاعل والتنمية والتحول والتنمية الاقتصادية.

كما أن التربة الخصبة ضرورية لنمو البذور، من أجل التنمية الثقافية، هناك حاجة ماسة للقلوب المنيرة والمرنة والتبادلات الثقافية. لأنه عندما تُهمل طهارة النفس (أو القلب)، يظلم القلب ويصبح قاسياً. إن بناء التنمية على قلب صلب يشبه محاولة زرع بذرة في صخرة.

زعيم ديني اليزيدي السيد بير عامر, الذي يعيش في ألمانيا هو أحد قادة الرأي المهمين في جغرافيتنا. إنه أحد الممثلين النشطين الرائدين لإخواننا اليزيديين.

التقينا في مديات يوم الثلاثاء 7 سبتمبر 2021 بالصدفة. كان لقاء مثمراً. قضينا وقتًا ممتعًا في ظلال الذكريات. تسامرنا مع بعض. تجاذبنا أطراف الحديث . تحدثنا عن أهمية شعار “الجسور بدلاً من الأسوار” من أجل مستقبل صحي وضرورة الاقتراب حتى يتم فهمها بشكل صحيح في الدراسات الاجتماعية. تحدثنا عن تجربة تعاوننا الحالي، والتي تعطي ثمارًا دائمة عندما نتصرف بوعي صادق.

على الرغم من مرور الكثير من المياه تحت الجسور، كان من دواعي السرور الروحي أن تشعر بصداقة / قرب زعيم ديني اليزيدي السيد بير عامر مع والدي الراحل أبونا توما بكتاش. في النظرة الروحية، لا يوجد “أنا وأنت.”هناك “نحن”.

عندما تشاركنا الذكريات / الحكمة التي عاشها مع والدي الراحل، رأيت أن وجهه مبتسماً وسعيدًا. شعرت بمثل هذه الصداقة الهادفة والمخلصة التي جعلتني أشعر بالسعادة والغوص في الأفكار.

نعم انه صحيح. الحياة مليئة بالصداقات. لقد تشرفت للغاية أن أكون قريبًا من هذا الصديق القديم لوالدي الراحل وأن أحظى بامتياز إجراء محادثة مع تلك الشخصية الموقرة التي تحدثت من القلب. أقدم احترامي له وللمجتمع الذي يمثله، مع أطيب تمنياتي بالصحة والنجاح.

بهذه المناسبة،  أود أن أذكركم بأبيات شعرية  لمولانا والتي يقول فيها :

 يشيع العماء في العيون,

والصمم في الأذن

دع الوهن يبقى على الركبة،

الهدوء على الشفاه

لكن لا تدع القلب يصم

لا يغمى عليه  ولا يضعف

دعه يراك

دعه يسمعك

دعه يركض إليك متصدعاً من اللهفة

إذا لم تعش في القلب،

ماذا ترى بالعين؟

إذا كان القلب لا يشعر،

ما ما فائدة السمع ؟

إذا  لم يحب القلب

ما فائدة الذي نسجته يداك ؟

 

ملفونو يوسف بكداش ِ

رئيس جمعية الثقافة واللغة السريانية وادبها / ماردين

THE WISDOM AND PHILOSOPHICAL ATTRIBUTES OF THE ŞUMLOYO CONCEPT 

THE WISDOM AND PHILOSOPHICAL ATTRIBUTES OF THE ŞUMLOYO CONCEPT 

In Syriac literature, the topic of spiritual wellbeing is unproblematic. On the contrary, the concepts specific to this field are rich and deep. Because from past to present, many suggestions, both written and oral, as well as countless works have been made in this literature against the spiritual illnesses that poison life and the belief system. Basically, the trove of words and concepts belonging to Syriac, a living, ancient language, is much richer than one thinks. The Syriac concept of “Şumloyo/Maturation/Complementary” is only one of the concepts that function as an antidote against mental fallacies and formal pathology, which are detrimental to life.

Social scientists are known to point out the fact that, “A person who tries to do everything by himself cannot benefit from others’ potential and succeed.” One of Turkey’s distinguished writers, the sage Zülfikar Özkan, has the following to say on this subject: “By helping people and contributing to life, we can feel useful. By using our power for others, we can find peace. For unused power or individual potential results in great tension. When we find unlimited time to spend alone, we will be faced with the danger of exhausting our reason to live.”[1] Besides being a psychological fact, this statement indicates the vital attitudes of Şumloyo reasoning. Furthermore, no entity in nature, whether organic or inorganic, exists solely for its own self. Due to the natural system, everything is interdependant. Just as the sun does not rise for itself, neither does a tree bear fruit for itself. The same goes for us humans. Being constructive and accommodating rather than destructive and obstructive is only one of the realities humanity is responsible for. By virtue of mutual need, humans must complete and better one another with love and without expecting something in return. Because there is no other way to deal with the feeling of worthlessness. This is why understanding Şumloyo reasoning will produce insights that are helpful in this regard. In fact, I think that new insights and new ways of life in this context will ensue from the pains of the pandemic age in which we live.

Indeed, habitual and familiar things are always comfortable and easy. On the other hand, stepping out of the comfort zone, despite mentally creating stress and tension, ends up being helpful in leading a rational and moral life, as well as spiritual maturation. For this to happen, the person’s inner perfection and quality must surface. The person must transform his inner crooked motives and destructive feelings so that his inner “light” can dawn unimpeded and unsullied. So that it may illuminate and be illuminated. So that it may shine resplendently in all directions.

It is a known fact that in a sociocultural environment that feeds on stereotypes, groundbreaking new concepts/reasonings that raise awareness are not easily adopted and digested at short notice. This takes time. It requires a wide understanding as well as patience. But without appreciation and unconditional acceptance (prejudice, negative conditioning, conceit, supremacism, narcissism, ostracism, marginalization, inferiority-superiority complex, vanity, envy, jealousy, grudge, intolerance, etc.) it is impossible to treat spiritual illnesses and intellectual infections. In other words, the Şumloyo reasoning must be appreciated in order for the mud of the ego to be washed off the spirit. There is no other way for rational expectations to become reality and for receiving help in case of need. The completing spirit of Şumloyo,[2] which harbors a great transformative energy is a love that allows us to value the ecosystem, even everything, not just ourselves[3].

Pointing to spiritual wealth with the words, “Those who sow ignorance reap misery,” Saint Mor Jacob of Suruç (451-521 a.d.), a master writer and orator, says, “The more we invest in education, the richer our minds become.” With his comforting discernment, this great master, who anticipated that knowledge of the truth was a responsibility, continues by saying, “Speak the truth, oh speaker. Even if none hear you, don’t stop, speak.”

Though it may seem like rowing against a strong current, I think that this update of mine is meaningful in contributing mentally to the new awareness emerging across the globe and to younger generations. Because the framework of “Şumloyo/maturation/complementary” reasoning always contributes to the rules of common life and to spiritual maturity. And this is measured by how we treat the people who are dependent on us. It is measured by the love which we allow to work in us.

The Iranian writer Anooshirvan Miandji, who has said that, “People look with their eyes and see with language,” emphasizes that we are defined by the information that pass through the filter of our personal thinking patterns. He says, “As humans, we can construct massive buildings, build robots, possibly even establish life on another planet. No matter what we produce as a civilization, the most valuable thing humanity can produce is thought. We need thoughts in order to expand our imagination, improve the world in which we live, and live a meaningful life. The best gift we can give to ourselves and to our society is thinking. Thinking is going beyond the limits.”

CONCEPTUAL PERSONALITY ACCORDING TO LINGUISTIC STUDIES

The only thing that gives language an organic structure is the word and its world of meaning and value, which it carries in parallel to their conceptual inner balance. If this “world of meaning and value” has experienced corrosion and loss of meaning, then this means that said language has lost its creative-constructive and interpretive effect. For the corrosion of language and its loss of attributed meaning is a sort of sickness. This, in turn, causes the gradual loss or utter death of the conceptual personality of words.  The conceptual personality of words in a language emphasizes their content, root, namely spirit. When the vital-creative power of words is in question, these elements emphasized on behalf of the word can explain both the meaning and the value. Because content, meaning, and value are synchronous, with quite important functions that determine actions and motives. The semantic personality of concepts enhances thinking patterns and expands existing meanings by heightening perception. It even ascribes new meanings to those words. This has a very positive effect on people’s sense-making ability and evaluation system. The worst calamity that can possibly befall a language is the debilitation of the sense-making ability. Conceptual development in a language promotes its vitality, the sociocultural formation of its users, and the heightening of perception. According to linguistic studies, the wider a meaning is given to a concept, the richer that language is considered. Moreover, concepts’ richness of meaning points to the profundity of meaning that language has carried from the past and shows its antiquity.

THE APPEARANCE OF THE ŞUMLOYO CONCEPT

While chasing lost, cryptic and stolen meanings, I contemplated time and time again the crucial and profound but elusive meaning of “Şumloyo”, a word found frequently in the corridors of Syriac literature and used often in church sources, which contributes to deficiency, incompleteness, and maturity. I updated this universal concept in my mind and made a point of using it repeatedly to raise awareness among people who have all ignored it due to the present-day conditions in which we are experiencing a truth crisis because of explicit and implicit lust for power.[4] Because for me, “Şumloyo” is the harmony of life and the rhythm of goodwill. Conscious awareness/balance leads from opposition to consonance. I penned this writing by synthesizing my intuitions with the inspiration and intellectual pollen I gleaned from many a Syriac master/writer, who conveyed to us the truth so that we may consider, think, and live through self-knowledge and discovery. I did so by trying to understand the feelings of those masters of action and comfort, connoisseurs of word and pen, healers of the soul who sustained eternal meanings with their works which shed light on our sociocultural life; who described the meaning of life and truth through the magical associations of words; who salved spiritual wounds with their efforts and creations.  Because if the comprehension of weakness and shortcoming is not developed, personal development will be stunted. For this reason, we must be able to show the courage to turn our weaknesses and shortcomings into power through Şumloyo reasoning, which connects small roads to main roads. We must be able to do ourselves the favor of building up our courage!

This reasoning arose from the mental pangs I felt while thinking about salient problems and questioning the stereotyped rotes and dogmatic judgements of popular culture, in which people are blind to the truth that binds everything/everyone together, and in which consciousness is silenced. I believe that if we could increase “şumloyo/maturity/ complementaryactivity in our realm of thought by placing our sincerity, heart, and consciousness at the center of what we know together with our shortcomings in our area of service, we will have both contributed more to the maturation process and conduced to more humane political and executive conduct. In this context, every person has two duties that complete one another. The personal duty is to realize one’s own maturation. The collective task is to contribute to others’ maturation. It should not be forgotten that the things we do for individual maturation will certainly also be beneficial to universal maturation.

THE ASSOCIATIONS OF THE ŞUMLOYO CONCEPT

While searching for a concept that attempts to teach “self-reflection, flaws, deficiency, completing, being completed, altruism, compassion, mercy, and along with awareness of these, the holiness of human dignity and labor” in the exploitative, abusive, destructive, and obscene world of the ego, which seeks to rule through oppression, the associations of this universal concept have been wide-ranging. It has emerged as a mental reflex that calls to humility, virtue, sincerity, responsibility, loyalty, simplicity, peace, discipline, spirit of self-control, strong will, harmony, diligence, hard work, justice, equality, originality, freedom, proactive, constructive language, running from excess, balance, high frequency feelings, and consistent morality, all of which have been pushed across the threshold. This is an attitude that, with its meanings derived from our spirits/divine essences, transforms rigid mental patterns trapped in a bell jar and puts to the center of our thoughts the ethical rules and moral values which guards people’s material-spiritual world. It is a moral attitude that strives for the dominance of language, the protector of every person’s right to live and the laws around this right in all areas of life. In a nutshell, just like pure consciousness, it has no identity or epithet. However, it has all the insights needed on the journey of maturation. Just like a magnet, it connects us to the divine values of absolute truth through humane attitudes and approaches.

THE MEANINGS OF ŞUMLOYO

Şumloyo, which does not put on the garments of selfishness and admires appreciation, is a conception of completing in order to be completed. It is an ascent to the light. In English, it means “maturity, realization, maturation, completion, being completed.” Şumloyo/maturation, which is a universal law, defines the rise, growth of the spirit at certain stages. It has rich content in terms of morals and logic. Actually, it is none other than the pure self, cleansed of the ego. Basically, it is a pure and clean attitude. It means taking responsibility for life at the highest level. In order to take root in divine love in an internal manner, this conception, which teaches what should and should not be done on the path of truth and loyalty, emphasizes the importance of the statement, “Get out of the way so that the Creator can appear.” It raises the spiritual awareness that adds strength to inner world’s sources of consolation. Just like the various nutrients, vitamins, and minerals that ensure physical development, it causes people to be lively, productive, and proactive in social life. Through it, spirituality and civilization in an internal sense become serene and dominant.

According to Şumloyo reasoning, which encourages and uplifts common life, the main thing is to turn from a desire for material gain, to a desire for meaningful giving. Because material things are a tool for spiritual maturity. To give and to complete is the joy of the spirit. As put forward by scientific research, when people act generously with an attitude that seeks to complete, the parts of the brain associated with pleasure and social ties activate and the endorphins that are released contribute positively to the person’s inner harmony as well as their spiritual and bodily health. In other words, everything we do for others or give away with Şumloyo reasoning and without any self-interest unfolds our inner world. A bond forms between giver and receiver. Because just as oxygen is needed to live, it is equally vital for the sake of continuity to contribute positively and with love to the flow of life, and to make the world a better place.

This is how the big name of Syriac spirituality, Saint Aphrem of Nusaybin (303-373 a.d.) emphasizes it: “Just as every organ in the body serves the need of another organ, the people of this universe also serve global needs for the general benefit. In that case, let us be glad that we are in need of each other. For the harmony and accord between us is a result of this situation. It must be because people need each other that people of high rank switch over to humbleness without being ashamed of ordinary people. Thus, ordinary people turn to the people of rank without any fear. In fact, we see a similar thing in our relationships with animals, that our need for them makes it necessary that we approach them with care and caution.”

On this subject, Saint Baselius (+ 378 a.d.) is of the opinion that, “None of us can fulfill their bodily needs by themselves. Far from it, each of us is in need of another in order to fulfill said needs, and therefore, we must be mindful of one another’s concerns/benefits, which is impossible to do by isolating oneself and living alone.

Yes, being aware of Şumloyo reasoning and adding it to our world of meaning whenever we lose our moral compass or tip the scales of mercy amidst daily activities will function as a cure-all. Because no one can learn, internalize, and apply the truths of life for another. What matters is going along with them instead of resisting them. What matters is restraining, and if possible, transforming the false self throughout the maturation process with inner-outer awareness. What matters is living with the awareness that a human is a spirit-carrying body and that this spirit has divine qualities. What matters is letting go of relative attitudes and cherishing both oneself and others. What matters is being able to complete others with servile motives as much as one can, in order to be completed oneself. As famous philosopher Epictetus (55-135 a.d.) put it centuries ago, “We are not people having spiritual experiences. We are spiritual beings having human experiences.”

In this context, we must learn to exit and look at ourselves from the outside so that we can find the way that leads to our true self and learn who we are. To accomplish this, we must be able to open our spiritual eyes and see with our hearts, a state defined as the ‘second birth.’ We must fill our inner darkness with light so that using it, we can find the way that leads to us, learn who we are, and live our lives with that knowledge. In the words of the great Syriac literary master Bar Hebraeus of Malatya (1226-1286 a.d.), who maintained that the prerequisite for this light is being cleansed of mud, or the ego, “We cannot drink from the fountain without being cleansed of mud.” Indeed, this approach, which does not categorize life or attempt to separate, otherize, or oppose, can be defined as nurturing an attitude free of all filth, destructive ambitions, wrong motives, prejudices, negative conditionings, harmful fixed opinions, mental and thinking patterns (stereotypes). The invisible (but simultaneously intelligible), genuine, and sincere affinity that comes from the spirit of empathy is the basic behavior of Şumloyo. This attitude, which provides a solution in situations where everything seems bleak, evaluates actions according to intent and honors it in proportion with how much it benefits the common good. For those who want to understand and know themselves, it provides a good formula for managing themselves and their area of service. Because “Şumloyo reasoning” has completing insights. With its outreaching and inclusive aspects, it is a form of perception based on true knowledge and the awareness of deficiency, appreciation, mercy, and altruism.

This reasoning gets its strength from discipline and culture, as in the versatile insights of development. It emphasizes self-knowledge and self-discipline. In its eyes, remorseless, deceptive attitudes such as manipulation, abuse, and exploitation which harm people’s inner worlds are morally evil and oppressive to the spirit. It teaches that without cultural riches, material riches serve no other purpose than bringing new dimensions of extravagance. Hence, Şumloyo reasoning reveals the difficulties of remaining in the flow without possessing the values of discipline and culture.  The path of discipline and culture is the humane path which lays the foundation for inner transformation and growth. No matter how tall the mountain of material things/carnality/selfishness is, the path of culture and discipline spans them.

THE MEANINGS OF ŞUMLOYO

Şumloyo’s main purpose is purification, refinement. It is gaining conscious awareness. It is performing every action, behavior, speech with humility. Going by Christ’s words, who says, “In this world you will have trouble. But take heart! I have overcome the world” (John 16:33), it illuminates the way for maturation. It considers resistance against worldly/carnal/selfish passions and their transformation under the discipline of humility and virtue to be imperative. It points to the Damascus road, which transformed Saul’s destructive harshness and aggression into Paul’s constructive gentleness and inclusivity. It believes that material and spiritual wellbeing is tied to this. Only with this awareness can one pay attention to what one lets in (food, drink, nutrition) and lets out (intent, speech, action). Only then can one keep these under control.

THE CONSCIOUSNESS THAT AWAKES WITH KNOWLEDGE OF THE TRUTH

In some parts of the world today, the spirit continues to suffer because of various attitudes in areas of authority and service that arise from feelings of hatred, such as scorn, ostracism, marginalization, intolerance, jealousy, exploitation, abuse, defamation, hypocrisy, duplicity, conceit, pride, patronization, and pontification. In fact, in some places and in some people, these destructive traits have reached an extreme level. The most important reason for this is that existential awareness of how humanity and the universe functions have not been developed. Because just as in the example of the grapevine and the stick, a person who thinks of himself as a being that is separate from the whole tortures himself with worries and fears. However, when he begins to question and reflect on himself and the universe, when he puts his talents/skills to use, his dead and unmindful consciousness comes to life and begins to develop. As a result, even if he is unaware, it becomes apparent through various channels (worship, compassion, books, friends, difficulty, social interaction, etc.) that there is no other power besides the absolute power. The person understands that his own existence is not separate and independent from that absolute power, and the “knowledge of the truth/universal knowledge” begins to reveal itself and flow to such a person. Thus, the individual, independent, virtual and false self whom the person thought they had been living up till that point transforms and grasps the realization of the absolute/divine power which is one. This is where the true/spiritual self develops. And this is the point where the person’s second birth begins. After this birth, the person desires to move beyond the conventional part of his belief system.  The second birth in question is the fully realized state of Christ’s following statement: “No one can see the kingdom of God unless they are born again” (John 3:3). Because people have one foot in the material world and the other in the spiritual realm. For various reasons, after biological birth, which begins in the mother’s womb, the spirit breaks its link/oneness with the spiritual realm, the source it takes its origin and nourishment from. To a varying extent, people pay the penalty for this separation.

Second birth, on the other hand, is a spiritual state of birth that manifests in true understanding of the essence, awakening the consciousness, securing resurrection, and standing up. Though midwives/doctors are required during this birth, everyone is equally responsible for the second birth. With this second birth, which is also called “disciplining the flesh” or “restraining cravings/transforming passions” with the spirit of self-discipline, the person awakes from the sleep of the ego and begins to understand the truth that creates everything through its conscious resurrection. Then he understands that everything in the universe in interconnected, as it should be. It functions correctly and perfectly. Then, the following words by famous philosopher Marcus Aurelius (121-180 a.d.) will be more meaningful: “Think of people as relatives, related not by blood but by mind. We came to the world to help each other. If I am part of the whole, I can welcome everything with joy. Since I am related to the other pieces, I do not hurt people. I always have their best interest at heart and makes self-sacrifices for them. When I do this, my life sorts itself out.”

The kingdom of which Christ spoke is located in people’s inner world. It is the person’s spiritual world. The seeds of all the blessings/beauties that are sought after in the external world exist in that world. Therefore, the peace, comfort, and stability in the external world are shaped according to that world. As a result, the person’s spiritual world (true self) is too important to neglect. It is as important as daily routines, food and drink, nutrition. It should not be subjected to arbitrary, high-handed treatment. It should not be abandoned to irresponsible applications. It should be known and remembered that nothing that has been prevented from taking place in the inner world can show up in the outer world. Bar Hebraeus (1226-1286 a.d.) has something noteworthy to say on the topic: “Hey, you who wash your the hand of your body every day; why don’t you wash away the dirt of your highly flawed ego? Everyone knows that the filth of the body only pollutes the body. The filth of the ego, on the other hand, tortures both the body and the spirit; you must wake up!”

THE ANTITHESIS OF ŞUMLOYO

Şumloyo reasoning, which glorifies the approach of completing in order to be completed, possesses disciplines that lead from opposition to consonance. It has an antithesis in the world of opposites that belongs to this understanding of life that comes into play during the spiritual birth in question.

In the circle of life, where everything exists along with its opposite, the antithesis of Şumloyo in Syriac is Şu’loyo. This involves the attitudes and obscene behaviors of the ego, a system of boasting, conceit, and airs of superiority that torture the spirit. Endorsed by popular culture, this reasoning leads to undesired alienation, estrangement, and detachment. Just like evil tries to infiltrate the fabric of good, Şu’loyo reasoning infects the person’s world of thought. The same way a parasite survives and weakens a healthy body by feeding on it, Şu’loyo reasoning, which means moral evil, feeds on the world of thoughts, gnawing and weakening it. For this reason, social development is stunted and sabotaged by the restricted meanings and low frequency motivations of Şu’loyo reasoning, which wears the garments of selfishness and speaks the language of conceit. In other words, there is a benefit to knowing the concepts that constitute Şumloyo reasoning in the first place, so that one can stay away from the gnawing structure and wasteful characteristic of this sickness. One must refine and strive to internalize those concepts and their meanings by filtering them through the mind and soul. For the guidance and prompting of this reasoning which includes all life-enriching goodness and help, rescue people from carnality/false self and bring them closer to the essence. They bring out humanity/true self. It is as difficult as it is simple. The difficulty lies not in the unknown, but in erroneous knowledge.

When the concepts of Şumloyo reasoning[5] have an effect on one’s thoughts, the spirit warms up and loosens up. Inner eyes and inner vision are illuminated. Consciousness and perception develop, grow. More opportunities rise up. Differences and capacities become pleasant. Thus, each person, authority, and institution becomes tranquil and at peace with its own position. Each becomes active in its own duty and role. Each maintains its esteem by preserving its sobriety. Because when Şumloyo reasoning is helpful to the flow, it causes the brain to secrete endorphins (widely known as the happiness hormone). And while this causes people to feel good, it improves physical and mental health. In other words, those who have internalized this reasoning have an appreciation for people and build a relationship with them out of self-love and respect for human dignity.

On the other hand, when the meanings of Şu’loyo reasoning with its negative effect on humans[6] come into play, the brain secretes special acidic hormones that pass into the bloodstream. If this secretion is related to fear, blood pressure drops, if its anger-related chemicals, blood pressure rises and aggression appears[7].  In other words, when these meanings have an effect on one’s thoughts, the spirit freezes and calcifies. Inner eyes and inner vision are darkened. Consciousness and perception narrow constrict and diminish. Less opportunities rise up. Differences and capacities become offensive. Thus, each person, authority, and institution becomes restless and ill at ease with its own position. Each becomes passive in its own duty and role. They lose the ability to preserve their sobriety and esteem. Because people with Şu’loyo reasoning are self-seeking. They value people based on their needs, expectations, and interests. Because of their inner emptiness, such overly sensitive people are ready to misinterpret and be offended at any moment.

THE SPIRITUALITY AND OBLIGATIONS OF ŞUMLOYO

The seeds of Şumloyo reasoning are human virtues and values themselves. These seeds are planted everywhere and in every way, but the main thing is to allow them to be planted deep within us, where they will not be stolen, blighted, or spoiled, so that they may take root, put forth branches and bear fruit. Because true life takes shape according to the growth rate/strength of those seeds. For based on this reasoning, in this world to which we came to serve, to complete one another and to be completed with love and respect, what counts is treating all existence, living or inanimate, with mindful appreciation and active altruism rather than with undercurrent emotions. If this happens, creativity and productivity will increase and the necessary plenitude will be achieved. For this to be possible, we must firstly purify our intentions, thoughts, and attitudes of lust for power and domination and of competitive ambition; we must try to reshape them with an attitude of mindful collaboration and a mentality of spiritual partnership.

It should be known that through action, comprehension becomes wisdom; and that action turns knowledge into wisdom. In the words of famous thinker/writer Goethe, “It is not enough to know, one must apply; it is not enough to want, one must do.” In other words, information is absolutely useless as long as it is not put to action. For this reason, it is more of a responsibility than a task to serve with and contribute positively to Şumloyo reasoning, which will carry virtue and skill beyond the realm of words and into the focus of life. All mental delusions can be eliminated by eluding the eclipses of the ego which blot out good sense and doing this with inclusivity that surpasses all understanding and rejects all forms haughtiness, superiority, and ostracism. For this reason, we should develop more ways of being people of action rather than people of words. At the root of all problems lies the absence of this view and lack of moral tenets. Unfortunately, life turns into a confusing mass of misunderstandings when viewed through the cracks of the ego and the grimy glasses of self-interest.

Esteemed Zülfikar Özkan finely articulates the subject I want to emphasize. I am partially quoting his writing on the subject. Here are his words:

“Maturation can refer to being complete and mature, developed, perfect, or the ideal man. A prominent word in Islamic faith and mysticism, maturation is used in the sense of evolution, development, and growth.

Someone who truly loves a person adjusts his behavior in a way that contributes as much as possible to their spiritual maturation. Someone who truly loves will expand his personality and core being, and as his personality expands, it matures. True love renews and improves a person. The more we contribute to the spiritual maturation of others, the more will we spiritually grow ourselves.

Someone who truly loves will always respect his beloved’s matchless individuality and differences. In fact, he will be supportive of it. Those who do not respect separateness and difference are in unnecessary pain. The most extreme form of being unable to perceive difference and separateness is called narcissism.  

In quite a few families, women and men define their goals in connection to themselves. These individuals do not think that their partners are a fundamentally separate being from them. Whereas marriage is an institution based on collaboration. The true purpose of marriage is for each person to receive support from the other in order to reach the individual heights of spiritual maturation. Someone who truly loves a person respects their unique personality and puts in effort toward their development.”[8]

As can be seen, without the leading understanding of Şumloyo/maturation reasoning, life’s meaning is sometimes confused, even lost in the highs and lows of life and the current of real time. Because life is built on the visible (material/body/physics) and invisible (meaning/spirit/metaphysics) world. It is self-evident that life cannot have reality of its own without the spiritual dimension. Because the material and spiritual move in equivalence in the functioning system of the universe.  As one gains understanding of the realities (meaning) of the invisible spiritual world and as the positive power of this world increases, the material world prospers. In other words, contrary to what is believed, spirituality, which concerns young and old alike, is the essence of life. By restraining carnality, it upholds humanity and the true person. When the spirit is at work, it becomes easier to swim in life’s waves with the attitudes of a flexible will. For this reason, handing over the reins of the body and the wheel of route to the spirit will prove relieving.

Collective and individual worship, rites, ceremonies, and other disciplines are recurring reminders against drifting apart from the essence/spirit. This cycle which feeds the spirit teaches how to disperse inner shadows and how to fold away and even get rid of one’s problems, rather than to put up with them. The purpose of all disciplines and worship is to keep the positive cycle and flow of Şumloyo reasoning alive. It is to serve spiritual development (maturation). It is to aid in finding the source of true wisdom. It is to bring closer to the essence/spirit. It is to instill a comprehension of the divine software and program of that essence/spirit. In this context, it is to create high awareness and responsibility. Because nowadays, preserving humanity and remaining a true person is very difficult. The true person is one who can retain his discipline of the essence, take pleasure in others’ success and share their sorrows. It is the person who makes an effort to prevent visible and invisible pollution. Another sign of a true person is turning away from all perversions that are at odds with the conscience and human self-esteem. It is reacting against vulgarities that disregard human dignity.

It should be known that no matter what one’s position or rank, each person is equally responsible for his/her own spiritual and civil development in the light of these writings. This principle, which must be fulfilled with awareness of incompleteness, binds people of all ages. Spirituality and culture, vital for a moral, healthy, and eternal life, have an effect on humanities social spheres. In other words, the more we clean and widen our inner roads, the more we fill up inner potholes, the more we heat up inner coldness, the easier will our outer journey be. When our lives become meaningful thanks to this convenience, the difficulties we experience are no longer problems that wear us out, but steps we must take on the journey to our goal. In this manner, life is no longer an arena of strife and competition, but an exciting journey of discovery and service.

The more harmony and connection we have with the divine will, the brighter our thoughts shine on the journey of life. According to the logic of the physical world, the link between people and the divine will can be compared to an electrical current. For example, when installing electricity in a house, if there is no electrical equipment in that house, the electricity will be completely useless. If we imagine the electric current as divine will, then we humans are comparable to lamps. The size or shape of the lamp is not important. The important thing is for it to be connected to electricity so that it can give light. As humans, it is not important who we are, what our rank is, or what talents/abilities we have. The important thing is the awareness we develop for “Abun d’Başmayo/Our Heavenly Father.” The important things is remaining faithful to the recurring entreaty, “Nehve Sebyonoğ/Your will be done.”

This state, which will cause the essence (spirit) to flourish and intensify, is a holy right given at birth. It eases the burdens of life. It facilitates life by allowing people to experience the pleasure of completing, improving, and transformative love. This empowers vital energy and zest for life by contributing to spiritual, mental, and moral growth.

To quote a proverb: “If a person loves something, he will learn to understand it!”

 

Yusuf Beğtaş [9]

Syriac Association of Language, Culture and Literature / Mardin

[1] FB page, Zülfikar Özkan.

https://m.facebook.com/story.php?story_fbid=4232900483465223&id=100002359399602

[2] In Syriac, the Holy Spirit is also called the “Ruho d-Şumloyo/Completing Spirit.”

[3] In Şumloyo reasoning, the main source of spirituality is the spirit. The spirit is like a divine software program in humans. If this software, which provides renewal and development, is known and used properly, things become easier and better. Because the spirit forms the essence of a human and leads to the source of absolute freedom. Without knowing and learning this essence, it is not easy for a person to know himself. A person can only know himself as much as he discovers and understands this essence. A person can only develop an awareness of freedom and individuality as much as he understands/comprehends this essence. The same applies to gaining wisdom. Otherwise, he becomes alienated to his own essence. He falls under the influence of software/programs that are alien to his own essence. Though this is situation is much sought after and used, it actually deprives the person of peace. Because all endeavors/projects that do not involve the spirit are always partially inadequate. For the manifestation of knowledge, which is the light of the mind, and of love, which is the light of the spirit, it is vitally important to be mindful of this in all endeavors/projects. Because those who do not cross the threshold of the physical world into the metaphysical (spirituality), are doomed to fall into a void. Indeed, both in past and present, a chasm has developed between spiritual thought and scientific/intellectual social thought. These two concepts have moved in opposite directions. However, at the present stage, as a result of quantum physics and its scientific experiments, it has been observed that spiritual and material laws correspond and are even exactly identical. Thus, social and spiritual thought, which previously seemed opposed and disparate, have grown closer. A mutual respect has developed between them. Just like in the union of body and spirit, it has been understood that one points to the other, and one proves the other. Like two sides of the same coin, these two complete one another.

[4] Şumloyo reasoning, which opened my eyes, is the joy of my life. It has been my sole motivation while carrying out my church duty for 30 years. I maintain my civilian cultural and literary activities under the maxim, “Let’s build bridges, not walls,” which is reflective of Şumloyo. Şumloyo is also the name I gave to our Turkish and Syriac program (in the West-East dialect) that airs on Suroyo TV in Sweden. In 2017-2019, when around seventy programs of 40 minutes each gained traction under the moderation of distinguished journalist Yawsef Beth Turo, I felt a need to write about Şumloyo reasoning, which emphasizes mental, spiritual, and moral development so that the concept may be better understood.

[5] Şumloyo ܫܘܼܡܠܳܝܐ means complementary. The leading concepts attributed to şumloyo culture include: Spiritual intelligence=havno d’ruho, will=sebyono, love=hubo, sabro=hope, peace/tranquility=şayno, well-being=şlomo, power of love=haylo d’hubo, pardon=husoyo, forgiveness=şubkono, heart=lebo, clean=dağyo, pure/şafyo, clean heart=lebo dağyo, idea/though=huşobo, clean thought=huşobo dağyo, spirit/soul=ruho, humility=mukoğo/makiğutho, faith=haymonutho, self-esteem=şayo, respect=ikoro, value/dignity=yakro, agreement=tarutho, blessing=burktho, truth=kuşto, trust=tuğlono, thanksgiving=tavditho, justice=kinutho, unconditional love=hubo lo ksiso/hubo lo tanvoyo, compassion=havsono, mercy=rahme, awareness=foruşutho, compassionate awareness=foruşutho d’havsono, awareness of incompleteness=foruşutho d’absirutho, awareness of appreciation=foruşutho d’amyakronutho, perseverence/tolerance=humsono, tenderness=hnono, respect for labor=ikoro d’maksoro, help=udrono, empathetic tenderness/ruhofo, patience=msaybronutho, generosity=şfi’utho, generous=şfi’o, virtue=myatrutho, science/education=yulfono, discipline=tarbitho, culture=mardutho, ethics=ithiki, morality=şafiruth znayo, decency/manners=tarbitho, diligence=kaşirutho, individuality=hatitutho, freedom=hirutho, assiduous=kaşiro, proactive=zrizo, augmentative=mrabyono, guide=mşablono, inner guide=mşablono gavoyo, responsibility=mşalutho, truthfulness/consistency=trisutho, gentlemanly=kniğo/rmiso, getlemanliness=kniğutho/rmisutho, rational power=haylo mlilo, serenity=bhilutho, serene=bhilo, smiling=hviho/fkiho, to smile=bursomo/hvihutho, warming=mahmonutho, facilitation=madlonutho, unburdening=maklonutho, thanksgiving=tavditho, constructive criticism=gunoyo mbanyono, praise/appreciation=kuloso, solution=şroyo, altruism=enahnoyutho, character transformation=şuğnoyo d’yasro, consolation of meaning=buyoo d’sukolo…!

[6] Şu’loyo ܫܘܼܥܠܳܝܐ  means boasting. The leading concepts attributed to şu’loyo culture include:  Ego=nafşo, selfishness=enonoyutho, love of power=hubo d’haylo, conditional love=hubo tanvoyo/hubo ksiso, patronization=rabutho, lazy=hbanono, laziness=hbanonutho, greedy=kaluto, kalututho=greed, oppression=ruşono, instigation=fetno, depravement=hbolo, complex=nafşo zu’rto, loftiness=eloyutho, jealousy=hosudutho, envy=hsomo, domineeringness=uşumyo, persecution=tlumyo, exploitation/abuse=şubzozo, scorn=şitutho, judgement=dino, judging=duyono, prejudice=dino kadmo, stereotype=dino amumoyo, harsh/(cold) looks=havro karsono, vanity=methzavzyonutho, flattery=meştafronutho, obsequiousness/sycophancy=şufardikutho, mockery=bezho/muyoko, labor exploitation=şubzozo d’maksoro, slander=u’şukyo, comparison=fuhomo, rivalry=muroyo, complaint=kbulyo/kutroğo, defamation=zulolo d’ikoro, vilification=şuhomo, trickery=neğlo, grudge=aktho, anger=ruğzo, rage=elmo, hate=senetho, pride=şubhoro, narcissism=şufroho, conflict=heryono, strife=masutho, condescension/insult=bsuryo, estrangement=makronutho, obstruction=ma’skonutho, exacerbation=mavkronutho, disturbing=malzono, disturbance=malzonutho, notion/illusion=sebro, delusion/hallucination=maklonutho, conditioning=maşronutho, immorality=sahnutho….

[7]  FB, Entelektüel Bakış, Nevzat Tarhan.

https://m.facebook.com/story.php?story_fbid=10159740517449727&id=683934726

[8] FB page, Zülfikar Özkan.

https://m.facebook.com/story.php?story_fbid=4209141542507784&id=100002359399602

[9] For buttoning up my spirit and for their positive contributions to common life and progress in the face of difficulty, I dedicate this writing to the churches of Antioch origin that represent a branch of Eastern Christianity, namely the Syriac Orthodox Church, the Syriac Catholic Church, the Assyrian Church of the East, the Maronite Church, the Chaldean Church, and the Ancient Church of the East, and to the civil groups spreading across the world from Middle Eastern countries like Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Syria, Israel, Jordan and laboring on behalf of the Syriac language under the name of Assyrian/Aramaic/Syriac/Maronite/Chaldean as children of the same ethnic and historical background!

مجد الروح وأصالة الذكاء

مجد الروح وأصالة الذكاء

لا يوجد كائن حي أو غير حي في الطبيعة يعيش فقط لذاته. بسبب النظام الطبيعي، كل شيء يتغذى على بعضه البعض. فكما أن الشمس لا تشرق من تلقاء نفسها، كذلك لا تثمر الشجرة لنفسها. نفس الشيء ينطبق علينا نحن البشر. بسبب الحاجة المتبادلة، يجب أن نكمل ونطور بعضنا البعض بالحب والامتنان. نحن ملزمون بإعادة المصدر الذي تلقيناه.

وفقًا لهذا المنظور، فإن للحياة قواعدها وقوانينها الروحية. يأتي مبدأ “المعاملة بالمثل والمنفعة” في طليعة هذه القوانين. في الطريق من المعارضة إلى التكامل، يجب أن يكون مبدأ “المعاملة بالمثل والمنفعة” ساري المفعول دائمًا. ومع ذلك، هناك “حب غير مشروط” في المركز الروحي غير المرئي للحياة. غالبًا ما يكون نشطًا ويعمل في مجالات الحياة غير المرئية. ومع ذلك، إذا لوحظ مبدأ “المعاملة بالمثل والفائدة”، الذي ينشط الإيثار النشط لدى الناس، في كل مكان، وتحت أي ظرف، وفي كل علاقة، فإن الحياة ستكون أكثر إرضاءً وذات مغزى. وتصبح جميلة وغنية.

لأن الإنسان يصبح إنسانًا إلى الحد الذي يمكنه من التغلب على الأنانية والعواطف الأنانية. أخلاقه حميدة، وينمو ويتطور روحياً. إن كلمة المسيح التي تقول: ” فَكُلُّ مَا تُرِيدُونَ أَنْ يَفْعَلَ ٱلنَّاسُ بِكُمُ ٱفْعَلُوا هَكَذَا أَنْتُمْ أَيْضًا بِهِمْ” (متى 7:12 ، لوقا 6:31)، هي المصدر الرئيسي لمبدأ “المعاملة بالمثل والنفع”. الشيء الرئيسي هنا هو الإخلاص، وهو ما يعني حرية الروح. إن النية الحسنة مغلقة أمام الاستغلال وسوء المعاملة.

لأنه من المستحيل على شخص متعجرف، انتقامي، أناني، مساوم، مقتر، منافق, أن يكون لديه نوايا حسنة داخليًا. إذا لم تكن النية صادقة، فإنها تصبح غيرفعالة. نية المنافق سيئة، فهي بالتأكيد ستأتي بنتائج عكسية وستحدث التأثير المعاكس.

يمكن للمرء أن يكون منافقا للآخر. في أسوأ الأحوال، يمكن أن نكون منافقين لأنفسنا أيضًا. أن تكون صادقًا مع الآخرين أمر سهل؛ أن نكون صادقين مع أنفسنا يتطلب مهارة. على الرغم من أننا يمكن أن نخدع الناس بذكاءنا، إلا أننا لا نستطيع أن نخدع الله خالق أجر نوايانا. يعرف الخالق الأسمى حقيقة أننا نستطيع أن نختبئ حتى عن أنفسنا. إنه لا ينظر إلى ما نقوله له عندما نرغب في أعماق قلوبنا، بل ينظر إلى ما نقوله لأنفسنا سرًا.

لذلك، فإن جميع أنواع الاستغلال والانتهاك ضد كرامة الإنسان وأي طريقة لبلع (أو اغتصاب) حقوق الآخرين مسجلة على أنها قسوة في السجلات الإلهية. يصعب هضمه لأنه حق إنسان / مسكين. يعود كحزن ومتاعب علينا.

الوعي الذي يؤدي إلى الإيثار في المواقف التي تكون فيها المقاربات الأنانية هي الأكثر أهمية من أجل عدم مواجهة هذه الحقائق المريرة؛ يجب أن يكون قابلاً للأفكارالماكرة / المتسترة و يجب كبح المواقف الأنانية / الذاتوية. يجب أن يتم العمل هكذا. يجب أن يكون هكذا.

ولكي يحدث هذا، يجب كسر/ إضعاف فعالية المواقف اللامبالية. يجب تدميرها إن أمكن. على الرغم من أن سمات مثل “المجاملة والأناقة واللياقة” تثير شعورًا بالشفقة لدى الناس، إلا أن هذه الفضائل في الواقع تحتوي أيضًا على الصيغة الأقوى / الخيرية التي تمهد الطريق للحياة المشتركة والحضارة، والتي تكسر/ تضعف فعالية المواقف الأكثر تفكيرًا. عندما يتم استبدال الهيمنة بمعناها، تكتسب الكرامة الإنسانية قيمتها الجوهرية. وفقًا لأحد الأفكار، “هذه الفضائل هي علامة مفترق طرق في حديقة متشعبة بين قانوننا الأخلاقي وكفاح البشرية من أجل الوجود.”

الفرنسيون؛ يقولون: “اللباقة هي نبل الذكاء”.

يجب إعطاء قيمة عظيمة  للفيلسوف / والمؤلف الشهير  Henri-Louis Bergson هنري لويس بيرجسون (1859-1941)، الحائزعلى جائزة نوبل للآداب عام 1927 لأفكاره الثرية والحيوية وموهبته الرائعة في تقديم هذه الأفكار، بنفس الطريقة. مثل عبارة “اللطف روعة الروح”.

يؤكد Bergson بارجسون أن هذه الفضائل هي نوع من الأخلاق، بمعنى ما، مع الحكم بأنه “بما أن الأخلاق هي التفكير في رفاهية الآخرين وعلى الأقل عدم إلحاق الأذى بهم، فهذا يعني أن الشخص الوقح وغير الأخلاقي مصاب بالضرر باستمرار. لإنه لا يمتلك القدرة على التحلي بالأخلاق.”

لأن وجود هذه الفضائل، التي تشكل أساس النظافة الأخلاقية وتعطي الأولوية للاتساق الأخلاقي، يعني التقدم / التطور: إنه يجعل الحياة أسهل. فإنه يأخذ التنفس الخاص بك بعيدا. يقوي الذات. غيابه يعني تراجعًا / ركودًا سلبيًا: يجعل الحياة صعبة. يسمم الأكسجين. يقوض العلاقات. إنه يضر بكرامة الإنسان. إنه يشل العلاقة الحميمة. إنه يقوض الصدق.

كما يقال: “كل إنسان هو مهندس وجلاد عالمه الداخلي”

لكي لا نكون جلادين لأنفسنا، يجب أن نهتم بهذه الفضائل التي تقلل من هشاشة الحياة وتعالج الأمراض العقلية. يجب علينا زيادة فعاليتها في حياتنا… لأن لغتهم خلابة اللغة حتى الصم يمكنهم سماعها. جمالهم آسر  حتى الذين لا يرون, يشعرون بالجمال حتى لو كانوا  عميان.

أعرض الرابط الالكترونية لمقالتي بعنوان “اللطافة، الظرافة، النزاهة”، والتي درست فيها فوائدها وآثارها في الحياة، بما في ذلك معانيها باللغة السريانية وفق مناهج شوميولوجية، ليستزيد القارئ الموقر, يمكن للمهتمين قراءة معاني هذه الفضائل على نطاق أوسع..

https://www.karyohliso.com/articles/article/5823

ملفونو يوسف بكداش

رئيس جمعية الثقافة واللغة السريانية وادبها / ماردين

Ruhun Görkemi ve Zekânın Asaleti

Ruhun Görkemi ve Zekânın Asaleti

Doğada canlı-cansız hiçbir varlık, salt kendi benliği için yaşamamaktadır. Doğal sistem gereği, her şey birbirinden beslenir. Güneş kendisi için doğmadığı gibi, ağaç da kendisi için meyve vermez. Aynı şey biz insanlar için de geçerlidir. Karşılıklı ihtiyaç gereği, birbirimizi sevgiyle, minnet etmeden tamamlamalı, geliştirmeliyiz. Aldığımız kaynağa geri vermekle yükümlüyüz.

Bu perspektife göre, hayatın kendine özgü kuralları, ruhsal yasaları var. “Karşılıklılık ve faydalılık” ilkesi, bu yasaların başında gelir. Karşıtlıktan tamamlayıcılığa giden yolda, ‘‘karşılıklılık ve faydalılık’’ ilkesi her zaman devrede olması gerekir. Öyle olsa da, aslında hayatın görünmeyen ruhani merkezinde ‘‘koşulsuz sevgi’’ var. Hayatın görünmez alanlarında çoğu kez etkindir, işbaşındadır.

Ancak insandaki etkin diğerkâmlığı aktifleştiren “karşılılık ve faydalılık” ilkesi her yerde, her koşulda, her ilişkide gerektiği kadar gözetilirse, hayat çok daha doyumlu ve anlamlı olur. Güzelleşir ve zenginleşir.

Çünkü insan, benciliği  ve egosal ihtirasları/hırsları yenebildiği oranda insanlaşır. Güzel ahlak sahibi olur, ruhen büyür ve gelişir.

“İnsanların size nasıl davranmasını istiyorsanız, siz de onlara öyle davranın” (Matta 7: 12, Luka 6: 31) diyen Mesih’in sözü bu “karşılılık ve faydalılık” ilkesinin ana kaynağını oluşturmaktadır. Burada esas olan, ruhun özgürlüğü anlamına gelen samimiyettir. Sömürüye ve istismara kapalı olan iyi niyettir.

Çünkü kibirli, kindar, bencil, içten pazarlıklı, hesapçı, ikiyüzlü bir insanın içsel anlamda iyi niyet edinmesi imkânsızdır. Niyet samimi değilse etkisizleşir. İkiyüzlünün niyeti bozuktur, mutlaka ters teper ve aksi etki oluşturur.

İnsan başkasına ikiyüzlü olabilir; en kötüsü, kendimize de ikiyüzlü olabiliriz. Başkalarına dürüst olmak kolaydır; kendimize dürüst olmak ise maharet ister. Zekânın kurnazlıklarıyla insanları kandırsak da niyetlerimizin karşılığını yaratan Allah’ı kandıramayız. Yüce Yaradan kendimizden bile gizleyebildiğimiz gerçeği bilir. Kalbimizin derinliklerinde dilerken O’na ne söylediğimize değil, gizliden gizliye kendimize ne söylediğimize bakar.

Dolayısıyla insan onuruna karşı yapılan her türlü sömürü ve istismar ve başkasının hakkını herhangi bir şekilde yeme (veya gasp etme)  ilahi kayıtlara zülüm olarak geçer. İnsan/kul hakkına girdiği için sindirmesi zor olur. Keder ve bela olarak geri döner.

Bu acı gerçeklerle yüzleşmemek için bencil yaklaşımların  baş tacı yapıldığı durumlarda, diğerkâmlığı tetikleyen vicdan; kurnaz/sinsi düşüncelere debriyaj, bencil/egoist tutumlara fren olmalıdır. Bu işlevi görmelidir. Öyle olmalıdır.

Bunun olabilmesi için nobran tutumların etkinliği kırılmalıdır/zayıflatılmalıdır. Hatta mümkünse yok edilmelidir. “Nezaket, Zarafet, Nezahet” gibi hasletler insanda acımtırak bir his uyandırsa da,  aslında bu erdemler ortak yaşamın ve medenileşmenin önünü açan ve nobran tutumların etkinliğini kıran/zayıflatan en sağlam/selim formülü de barındırmaktadırlar. Tahakkümün yerine onların anlamı ikame edildiğinde insan onuru öz değerine kavuşmuş olur.

Bir düşünceye göre, ‘‘Bu erdemler, ahlak yasamız ve insanlığın var oluş mücadelesi arasında çatallanan bir bahçedeki kavşak tabelasıdır.’’

Fransızlar; ‘‘Nezaket zekânın asaletidir’’ der.

1927 yılında ‘‘zengin ve hayat verici fikirleri ve bu fikirlerin sunulmasında kullandığı parlak yeteneği sebebiyle’’ Nobel Edebiyat Ödülüne layık görülen ünlü filozof/yazar Henri-Louis Bergson (1859-1941) ‘‘Kibarlık, ruhun görkemidir’’ sözüyle aynı minvalde değerlendirmek gerekir.

Bargson, ‘‘Ahlak, başkalarının iyiliğini düşünmek, en azından onlara fenalık etmemek olduğuna göre, kaba ve terbiyesiz insan, kendindeki ahlaklı olma yetisini durmadan yaralıyor demektir’’ yargısıyla bir anlamda bu erdemlerin bir nevi ahlak olduğunu vurgulamaktadır.

Çünkü ahlaki temizliğin temelini oluşturan ve ahlaki tutarlılığı önceleyen bu erdemlerin varlığı ilerleme/gelişim demektir: Yaşamı kolaylaştırır. Nefes aldırır. Özü gürleştirir. Yokluğu ise, gerileme/negatif durgunluk demektir: Yaşamı zorlaştırır. Oksijeni zehirler. İlişkileri baltalar. İnsan onurunu yaralar. Samimiyeti sakat bırakır. Dürüstlüğü süründürür.

Denildiği gibi: ‘‘Her insan kendi iç dünyasının hem mimarı, hem de celladıdır.’’

Kendi kendimizin celladı olmamak için yaşamdaki kırılganlığı azaltan ve ruhsal hastalıkları sağaltan bu erdemleri önemsemeliyiz. Hayatımızdaki etkinliğini arttırmalıyız.

Çünkü onların dili öyle bir lisandır ki, onu sağır da duyar. Güzellikleri öyle bir güzelliktir ki, onu görgüsüz de görür. Kör de hisseder.

Süryanicedeki anlamlarını da içeren yaşamdaki faydalarını ve etkilerini, sosyolojik yaklaşımlara göre irdelediğim ‘‘Nezaket, Zarafet, Nezahet’’ başlıklı yazımın linklerini ekte değerli okuyucunun bilgisine sunuyorum. Merak edenler bu erdemlerin anlamlarını daha geniş bir şekilde okuyabilir.

https://www.karyohliso.com/articles/article/5793

https://www.midyatgundem.com/nezaket-zarafet-nezahat-makale,498.html

http://www.mardinexpress.com/nezaket-zarafet-nezahat/

Saygılarla,

Yusuf Beğtaş

Süryani Dili-Kültürü ve Edebiyat Derneği / Mardin